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Golden Kamuy and the representation of Ainu people

2019.02.16 18:00 Chariotwheel Golden Kamuy and the representation of Ainu people

Fans of Golden Kamuy have seen a small slice of the struggle the Ainu people of Hokkaido faced against the Japanese in the early 20th Century. It was only yesterday, on the 15th February 2019, that the Japanese government introduced a bill to recognize the ethnic Ainu as indigenous people. This was after after a long history of abuse and discrimination by various Japanese governments.

Forced Assimilation

Initially, the Ainu were on more or less friendly terms with their Japanese neighbours. While there were occasional conflicts, even violent ones, they mostly only engaged in trading. It was not until the Meiji Restoration (1868), when Japan tried to modernize itself according to the Western ideal, that they moved to annex Hokkaido.
A part of the move was to deny the Ainu their own culture. They were given Japanese citizenship and were, on paper, treated as Japanese. As far as the Japanese government was concerned, their citizenship was 100% ethnically Japanese with no minority groups.
Ainu people were ripped from their culture and history and forcefully assimilated into the culture of their overlord. Children were taken from their parents and put into boarding schools that taught them "proper" Japanese. They were forced to learn Japanese, get Japanese names and their religious and cultural customs were banned. A story similar to many others around the world. Be it American Indian boarding schools in the USA, the Indian residential school system in Canada, Kinder der Landstrasse in Switzerland, Arabization in Iraq and the Stolen Generations in Australia.
I also recommend watching this short United Nations video about Ainu people as a diminished minority that struggles to keep their culture and language alive:

The path to recognition

In 1997, a law came into action that aimed to preserve Ainu culture and guaranteed their human rights. Only then did the forced assimilation stop; however, the law still did not recognize Ainu people as indigenous people..
It was only in 2008, when the Japanese Diet (the Japanese legislature) decided to call the government to recognize the Ainu people as an indigenous people and end discrimination. Only now, more than a decade after the call, has the government moved to officially recognize the Ainu people for what they are:
The government approved a bill Friday to recognize the country’s ethnic Ainu minority as an “indigenous” people for the first time, after decades of discrimination against the group.
The bill is the first to recognize the Ainu as “indigenous people” and calls for the government to make “forward-looking policies,” including measures to support communities and boost local economies and tourism.
The new bill states its purpose is to “realize a society where the Ainu people can live with their ethnic pride, which will be respected” by others. The government will subsidize projects aimed at promoting Ainu culture and organized by local municipalities.
The law would also simplify procedures for Ainu to get permission from authorities to collect timber from national forests for their rituals, and to catch salmon in rivers in a traditional way.

Golden Kamuy

Of course, the struggle went on for a long time and many people put in work and effort to give the Ainu people their deserved recognition, but Golden Kamuy also added a small part of the effort to make the Ainu voice known. Hokkaido used Golden Kamuy in their museums and a tourism app was created to encourage fans to visit the prefecture..
The mangaka was assisted by an Ainu language instructor as an advisor (Hiroshi Nakagawa, professor of the Ainu language at Chiba University), who was also involved in the anime production, instructing the voice actors on how to pronounce the Ainu language.
From an Interview with Noda Satoru (Mangaka) and Ookuma Hakkou (Managing Editor) in January 2016
Q: The Ainu culture is among the various elements present in Golden Kamuy. Up until now, there were so few manga that portray the Ainu culture. Why did you choose this subject?
Noda: Actually until now there are so few of them. Does it not feel fresh for the readers? I think that since it is a delicate subject, people recoil from it. It brings along dark images of prosecution, discrimination, and such. But I was convinced that if I make an Ainu-themed manga that is cheerful and interesting, it can become popular. Even the Ainu people whom I met to gather data told me, “Please do not portray miserable Ainu people anymore. Please draw strong Ainu people.”
Q: Speaking of that, how was the decision by the editorial team taken? Especially because lately there is a tendency of high demand for political correctness.
Ookuma Hakkou: The serialization meeting of the editorial team agreed on it unanimously. Thankfully, the editorial team is frank about whether something is interesting or not. However, since neither the editorial team nor our company had much experience and knowledge about the theme, they told us “You need to be prepared well”. As for Noda-sensei, during the meeting when he presented the material, he said “I’m prepared”, so there was no problem.
Noda: Although it’s a delicate subject, I think any trouble that arises from it is not caused by malice, but because of ignorance. That’s why I make this manga while researching and asking experts as much as possible. In addition, I think it’s okay to draw various Ainu people: strong ones, sly ones. Because they too are human.
Q: How’s the reaction to that? Noda: I think the Ainu people understand my seriousness about this. I’m glad that I receive a lot of nice responses from the parties concerned with the Ainu.
Not only reading literature, he also goes to meet people in real life and interview them many times. Since before the serialisation began, he visited various places such as museums in Hokkaido. He consulted researchers to be able to write about Ainu language and tools as close to reality as possible. In-between his time preoccupied with writing, he went hunting with a hunter and also ate the raw internal organs of the animals they caught. “After properly collecting data and studying, it’s important to have boldness to tell a big lie on the verge of bankruptcy.” That gave his story vitality.
For instance, in Ainu community, there’s a clear division of roles between men and women, and there was no woman bringing an archer’s bow like the girl who appeared in the manga; he received criticism from the editorial department that pointed out the mistake. However, he learnt from Associate Professor Kitahara Jirouta Mokottunas from Hokkaido University’s Indigenous People Research Center who provides supervision, that there are folk tales about female hunters remaining in places like Biratori and Shiraoi.
In-depth data collection re-produces reality, and affects reality as well. Such sincere attitude has gained him deep trust from Ainu community authorities and researchers.
The production staff also went to Hokkaido to observe locations and culture. Although the manga was already very detailed, the anime staff had to experience the location themselves to get a feeling for it.
Production staff, including me, went to Hokkaido to observe the locations, and we of course get supervision from an Ainu language expert. We borrowed the detailed research materials from Noda Satoru-sensei, and we confirm any doubtful points one by one as we proceed with the production.

In short

All countries have a long history, with many accomplishments and many injustices. The Ainu people were forced to undergo cultural assimilation and for a long time were a diminished people. It took a long struggle to get them recognized as indigenous people worth protecting.
Part of making people aware of diminished minorities is representation in the media they consume. Many people here probably didn't know Ainu culture well or at all before their depiction in Golden Kamuy. But seeing their customs, as simply human with strengths and flaws, gave the minority group a shape and something to identify with.
Both the mangaka and the anime production team made a great effort to represent the Ainu culture respectfully. It's great to see that Ainu finally on the way of official recognition after all this time of unjust assimilation.
Thank you to u/spaceaustralia, u/elleyonce, u/semajdraehs and u/AmeteurElitist for proofreading and sorting out my grammatical mess.
submitted by Chariotwheel to anime [link] [comments]

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